19 June 1269: Louis IX issues fine against Jews found not wearing identifying badge
France. (Saint) Louis IX of France orders all Jews found in public without a badge (French: rouelle or roue, Latin: rota) to be fined ten livres of silver. The enforcement of wearing the badge is repeated by local councils, with varying degrees of fines, at Arles 1234 and 1260, Béziers 1246, Albi 1254, Nîmes 1284 and 1365, Avignon 1326 and 1337, Rodez 1336, and Vanves 1368.
On June 19, 1269, King Louis IX of France ordered all Jews to wear a badge identifying themselves as Jewish whenever they were in public. Those found not wearing the badge, a red or yellow circle known as a “rouelle”, were fined ten livres of silver. Similar edicts, requiring Jewish Europeans to wear distinctive badges, clothing, or hats, were common in medieval Europe; the Fourth Lateran Council offered as a justification the fear that Jewish people were passing themselves off as Christian and seducing Christians. Similar acts included a 1274 edict requiring English Jews to wear a badge shaped like the Ten Commandments, various laws in German-speaking lands requiring Jews to wear distinctive conical hats, and the requirement of red robes in 14th-century Rome. These types of forced emblematic distinction from non-Jewish Europeans subsided in later centuries, but were famously revived in Nazi Germany and occupied lands, where Jewish residents were forced to wear yellow Stars of David with the local word for “Jew” emblazoned on them in a pseudo-Hebrew script.
June 19. 1320. Pope John XXII issues Bull “Cum sit absurdum” which orders that converted Jews need not be despoiled.
June 19, 1948 Jews again accused of poisoning wells
Jews living at the time of the Black Death in 1348-1350 were accused of poisoning the wells in order to kill Christians, and Jews living in Israel at the time of its rebirth would have the same accusation hurled at them: the semi-official Vatican newspaper, Civilta Cattolica, reported on June 19, 1948, that “the Zionists have poisoned the municipal wells at Gaza and spread typhoid and diarrhea by putting germs in feeding troughs.”
19 June 2003 Rabbis Re- Issue “Messianic Jews, Jews for Jesus – A Bibliography” #otdimjh
This is a bibliography put together in December 1996 by Rabbis Roderick Young, David Adelson and Jennifer Krause. It is intended to help people understand, and guard against, the troubling phenomenon of those Jews who leave Judaism by converting to a particular brand of Evangelical Christianity that its adherents call “Messianic Judaism.” It is not a definitive bibliography, but is a good beginning for those who want to make a serious study of “Messianic Jews.”
- Beiser, Vince, “For the love of Jesus: The Ominous Rise of Messianic Judaism.” Jerusalem Report, January 26, 1995
- Berger, David and Michael Wyschogrod, Jews and ‘Jewish Christianity’, Hoboken: Ktav, 1978.
- Committee on Jewish Law and Standards (Conservative Movement), Tshuvot on Synagogue Membership, numbers 090181 and 091481.
- Cryderman, Lyn, “Who is a Jew?” Christianity Today vol. 34, June 18, 1990.
- Edelstein, Alan, “Let Us Prey: Jews Who Choose Jesus.” Moment August 1994.
- Feher, Shoshana, Passing Over Easter. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1995.
- Fischer, John, “Messianic Jews Are Still Jews.” Christianity Today vol 26, no. 7, April 1981.
- Gager, John G., “Jews, Christians and the Dangerous Ones in Between” in Shlomo Biderman and Ben-Ami Scharfstein eds. Interpretation in Religion, Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992.
- Harris-Shapiro, Carol, Syncretism or Struggle: The Case of Messianic Judaism. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1992.
- Hurvitz, Mark & Aron Manheimer, Davka, Vol. II, No. 2, March-April 1972.
We published it with a caveat (and, I almost lost the editorship because of it (the material, not the caveat)… thanks to Richard and others who stood up for us): “Due to the controversial nature of some of the articles contained herein, this issue of DAVKA is copyright 1972.”
- Adler, Rachel, The Concept of Messiah in Jewish Tradition
- Mitchell, Elichai & Shira Lindsay, Jews do Believe in Jesus
- Garber, Zev, The synoptic Jesus: A Jewish Approach
- Rembaum, Rabbi Joel, A Polemic by Rashi Against Christian Theology
- Mitchell, Janet B., Going Home
- Levy, Rabbi Richard N. Passion & Passivity: Three Musical Crucifictions
- Bruce, Lenny, A Jew (from “The Essential Lenny Bruce”)
- Meltzer, David, YHShWH
- And my own editorial, which I later put Online explains some of the thought behind the materials published
- Jones, L. Gregory, et al, ed., Modern Theology, vol 11, no. 2, April 1995.
- Juster, Daniel C. and Daniel W. Pawley, “A Messianic Jew Pleads His Case.” Christianity Today vol. 26 no. 7, April 24, 1981.
- Lipson, Juliene G. Jews For Jesus: An Anthropological Study. New York: AMS Press,1990.
- Novak, David, “When Jews become Christians”, First Things 17, November 1991.
- Rausch, David, Communities in Conflict. Philadelphia: Trinity Press International, 1991
- Rausch, David, Messianic Judaism: Its History, Theology and Polity. Lewiston, NY: The Edward Mellen Press, 1982.
- Reform Responsa Committee, #67 “Burial of a ‘Messianic Jew’,” Sept. 1983
- Reform Responsa Committee, #66 “Children of ‘Messianic Jews’,” July 1984.
- Reform Responsa Committee, #150 “Marriage with a ‘Messianic Jew’,” 1981.
- Reform Responsa Committee, #68 “Status of a ‘Completed Jew’ in the Jewish Community,” Sept. 1983.
- Rottenberg, Isaac C., Jewish Christians in an Age of Christian-Jewish Dialogue. Published privately. (Donated to HUC Library in 1995).
- Sidey, Ken, “Messianic Jews Seek Visibility, Respect.” Christianity Today vol. 34, Fall 1990.
- Stokes, H. Bruce, Messianic Judaism: Ethnicity in Revitalization. Ann Arbor: UMI, 1994.
- Washofsky, Mark, “Why We Reject ‘Messianic Jews’,” Reform Judaism, Winter 1996.
© Rabbis Roderick Young, David Adelson and Jennifer Krause, June 19, 2003
Prayer: History repeats itself, and anti-Semitism is a recurring theme. Lord have mercy!