Turbato corde is a papal bull issued by Clement IV. The bull was addressed to Dominican and Franciscan Friars on the issue of the arising of acts of heresy amongst the mixed Jewish and Christian peoples, expressing the then pope’s dissatisfaction and disagreement with there being some Jewish persons attempting to convert Christians to Judaism. The bull was issued during 1267. As part of the address the then pope indicated the friars might be made into inquisitors for the purposes of dealing with suspected acts of heresy. People of the Christian faith and belief who had converted to Judaism were, according to the decree, to be thought of and treated as heretics.
Dilectis filiis fratribus Predicatorum et Minorum ordinum inquisitoribus heretice pravitatis auctoritate sedis apostolice deputatis, aut in posterum deputandis, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Turbato corde audivimus et narramus quod quamplurimi Christiani veritatem Catholicae fidei abnegantes se ad ritum Judaicum damnabiliter transtulerunt; quod tanto magis reprobum fore dignoscitur, quanto ex nomen hoc Christi sanctissimum quadam familiari hostilitate securius blasphematur. Cum autem huic pesti damnabili, que, sicut accepimus, non sine subversione predicte fidei nimis excrescit, congruis et festinis deceat remediis obviari: universitati vestre per apostolica scripta mandamus, quatenus infra terminos vobis ad inquirendum contra hereticos auctoritate sedis apostolice designatos super premissis tam per Christianos, quam etiam per Judeos inquisita diligenter et solicite veritate, contra Christianos, quos talia inveneritis commississe tamquam contra hereticos procedatis: Judeos autem, qui Christianos utriusque sexus ad eorum ritum execrabile hactenus induxerunt; aut inveneritis de cetero inducentes pena debita puniatis; contradictores per censuram ecclesiasticam, appellatione postposita, compescendo, invocato ad hoc, si opus fuerit, auxilio brachii secularis. Datum Viterbi, VI kal. augusti, anno tertio. http://www.cn-telma.fr/relmin/extrait268771/
To the beloved sons and brothers of the Orders of Preachers and Minors, now and in the future deputised by the authority of the Apostolic See to the Inquisition of heretical depravity, salvation and apostolic blessing.
With a heart disturbed we have learned and we report that several Christians, renouncing the truth of the Catholic faith, have culpably transferred to the Jewish rite. This is, indeed, all the more deplorable because, therefore, the blessed name of Christ is blasphemed familiarly with some hostility. Since we must overcome with appropriate measures and quickly this detestable plague, which as we have learned, grows not without subversion of that faith, we order by apostolic letters to you all, after investigating the truth with faith and promptness, among Christians and even among Jews, to proceed, within the limits given by the Apostolic See, to investigate the heretics against Christians find you guilty of this sin as if they were heretics; and even punish with appropriate penalties Jews who have already induced the Christians of both sexes into their execrable rite or are in the process of doing so; by forcing opponents by ecclesiastical censure, without appeal, and involving if necessary, using the secular power. Given at Viterbo, the sixth day of the calends of July, the third year.
Prayer: The history of the Inquisition gives ample reason why Jewish people find it difficult to consider the claims of Yeshua, and we can learn from history in order not to repeat it. How long, O Lord, how long?
- Browe, Die Judenmission im Mittelalter und die Päpste, (Rome 1942), p. 258
- Grayzel, The church and the Jews in the XIIIth Century, (Detroit-New York 1989), pp. 102-104, n. 26
- Ripoll, Bullarium Ordinis FF. PraedicatorumI, (Roma 1729), p. 489, n. 73
- H. Sbaralea,Bullarium Franciscanum III (Roma 1765), p. 126
- Cohen, The Friars and the Jews. The Evolution of Medieval Anti-Judaism, (Ithaca 1984), pp. 48-49
- Grayzel, “Popes, Jews, and the inquisition from ‘Sicut’ to ‘Turbato’”, Essays on the Occasion of the Seventieth Anniversary of the Dropsie University, A.I. Katsh, L. Nemoy (dir.), (Philadelphia 1979), p. 15
- Synan, The popes and the Jews in the Middle Ages, (New York 1965), p. 118
- Tartakoff, Between Christian and Jew.Conversion and Inquisition in the Crown of Aragon 1250-1391, (Philadelphia 2012), p. 27.
- Browe, Die Judenmission im Mittelalter und die Päpste, Roma 1942.
- Cohen, The Friars and the Jews. The Evolution of Medieval Anti-Judaism, (Ithaca 1984).
- Cohen, The Living Letters of the Law: Ideas of the Jews in Medieval Christianity, (Berkeley-Los Angeles 1999).
- Dal Col, L’inquisizione in Italia dal XII al XXI secolo, (Milano 2006).
- Grayzel, “Popes, Jews, and the inquisition from ‘Sicut’ to ‘Turbato’”, Essays on the Occasion of the Seventieth Anniversary of the Dropsie University, A.I. Katsh, L. Nemoy (dir.), (Philadelphia 1979), pp. 173-188 [= Id., The church and the Jews in the XIIIth CenturyII, (Detroit-New York 1989), pp. 1-45].
- Quaglioni, “‘Christianis infesti’, una mitologia giuridica dell’età intermedia: l’Ebreo come ‘nemico interno'”, Quaderni fiorentini per la storia del pensiero giuridico moderno38 (2009), 201-24.
- Shatzmiller, “L’inquisition et les Juifs de Provence au XIIIe siècle”, Provence Historique93-94 (1973), pp. 327-328.
- Stow, “Ebrei, età medievale”, Dizionario storico dell’Inquisizione II, A. Prosperi (dir.), (Pisa 2010), pp. 521-523.